We present a novel learning framework, ActiveNeRF, aiming to model a 3D scene with a constrained input budget. We first incorporate uncertainty estimation into a NeRF model, which ensures robustness under few observations and provides an interpretation of how NeRF understands the scene. On this basis, we propose to supplement the existing training set with newly captured samples based on an active learning scheme. By evaluating the reduction of uncertainty given new inputs, we select the samples that bring the most information gain. In this way, the quality of novel view synthesis can be improved with minimal additional resources.